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In effect, child is the default axis. A location step of. For example, the location path. Similarly, a location step of.. For example,.. Relative location paths. The steps in a relative location path are composed together from left to right. Each step in turn selects a set of nodes relative to a context node. An initial sequence of steps is composed together with a following step as follows. The initial sequence of steps selects a set of nodes relative to a context node. Each node in that set is used as a context node for the following step.
The sets of nodes identified by that step are unioned together. The set of nodes identified by the composition of the steps is this union. Absolute location paths. If it is followed by a relative location path, then the location path selects the set of nodes that would be selected by the relative location path relative to the root node of the document containing the context node. Location path provides a means to search for target nodes.
Here is the general syntax for location path:. XPath operates on an XML document as a tree. The root node is the root of the tree. It does not occur except as the root of the tree. The element node for the document element is a child of the root node.
The root node also has as children processing instruction and comment nodes for processing instructions and comments that occur in the prolog and after the end of the document element. The string-value of the root node is the concatenation of the string-values of all text node descendants of the root node in document order. The root node does not have an expanded-name. There is an element node for every element in the document. An element node has an expanded-name computed by expanding the QName of the element specified in the tag in accordance with the XML Namespaces Recommendation.
The namespace URI of the element expanded-name will be null if the QName has no prefix and there is no applicable default namespace. The children of an element node are the element nodes, comment nodes, processing instruction nodes and text nodes for its content. Entity references to both internal and external entities are expanded. Character references are resolved. The string-value of an element node is the concatenation of the string-values of all text node descendants of the element node in document order.
Unique IDs. An element node may have a unique identifier ID. No two elements in a document may have the same unique ID. If an XML processor reports two elements in a document as having the same unique ID which is possible only if the document is invalid , then the second element in document order must be treated as not having a unique ID. Character data is grouped into text nodes.
As much character data as possible is grouped into each text node: a text node never has an immediately following or preceding sibling that is a text node. The string-value of a text node is the character data. A text node always has at least one character of data.
Each element node has an associated set of attribute nodes; the element is the parent of each of these attribute nodes; however, an attribute node is not a child of its parent element. Elements never share attribute nodes: if one element node is not the same node as another element node, then none of the attribute nodes of the one element node will be the same node as the attribute nodes of another element node. A defaulted attribute is treated the same as a specified attribute.
If an attribute was declared for the element type in the DTD, but the default was declared as IMPLIED, and the attribute was not specified on the element, then the element attribute set does not contain a node for the attribute. Some attributes, such as xml:lang and xml:space , have the semantics that they apply to all elements that are descendants of the element bearing the attribute, unless overridden with an instance of the same attribute on another descendant element.
However, this does not affect where attribute nodes appear in the tree: an element has attribute nodes only for attributes that were explicitly specified in the start-tag or empty-element tag of that element or that were explicitly declared in the DTD with a default value.
An attribute node has an expanded-name and a string-value. The namespace URI of the attribute name will be null if the QName of the attribute does not have a prefix. An attribute node has a string-value. The string-value is the normalized value as specified by the XML Recommendation. An attribute whose normalized value is a zero-length string is not treated specially: it results in an attribute node whose string-value is a zero-length string.
Each element has an associated set of namespace nodes, one for each distinct namespace prefix that is in scope for the element including the xml prefix, which is implicitly declared by the XML Namespaces Recommendation and one for the default namespace if one is in scope for the element. The element is the parent of each of these namespace nodes; however, a namespace node is not a child of its parent element. Elements never share namespace nodes: if one element node is not the same node as another element node, then none of the namespace nodes of the one element node will be the same node as the namespace nodes of another element node.
This means that an element will have a namespace node:. For every attribute on an ancestor element whose name starts xmlns: unless the element itself or a nearer ancestor re-declares the prefix;. For an xmlns attribute, if the element or some ancestor has an xmlns attribute, and the value of the xmlns attribute for the nearest such element is non-empty. A namespace node has an expanded-name: the local part is the namespace prefix this is empty if the namespace node is for the default namespace ; the namespace URI is always NULL.
The string-value of a namespace node is the namespace URI that is being bound to the namespace prefix; if it is relative, then it must be resolved just like a namespace URI in an expanded-name. There is a processing instruction node for every processing instruction, except for any processing instruction that occurs within the document type declaration. The string-value of a processing instruction node is the part of the processing instruction following the target and any whitespace.
It does not include the terminating? There is a comment node for every comment, except for any comment that occurs within the document type declaration. A comment node does not have an expanded-name. For every type of node, there is a way of determining a string-value for a node of that type.
For some types of node, the string-value is part of the node; for other types of node, the string-value is computed from the string-value of descendant nodes. A namespace URI. The namespace URI is either null or a string. Two expanded-names are equal if they have the same local part, and either both have a null namespace URI or both have non-null namespace URIs that are equal.
There is an ordering, document order, defined on all the nodes in the document corresponding to the order in which the first character of the XML representation of each node occurs in the XML representation of the document after expansion of general entities. Thus, the root node will be the first node. Element nodes occur before their children. Thus, document order orders element nodes in order of the occurrence of their start-tag in the XML after expansion of entities.
The attribute nodes and namespace nodes of an element occur before the children of the element. The namespace nodes are defined to occur before the attribute nodes. Root nodes and element nodes have an ordered list of child nodes. Nodes never share children: if one node is not the same node as another node, then none of the children of the one node will be the same node as any of the children of another node.
Every node other than the root node has exactly one parent, which is either an element node or the root node. A root node or an element node is the parent of each of its child nodes. The descendants of a node are the children of the node and the descendants of the children of the node. Software modules must recognize tags and attributes which they are designed to process, even in the face of collisions occurring when markup intended for some other software package uses the same element type or attribute name.
Document constructs should have universal names, whose scope extends beyond their containing document. XML namespaces differ from the namespaces conventionally used in computing disciplines in that the XML version has internal structure and is not, mathematically speaking, a set. URI references which identify namespaces are considered identical when they are exactly the same character-for-character.
Note that URI references which are not identical in this sense may in fact be functionally equivalent. Examples include URI references which differ only in case, or which are in external entities which have different effective base URIs.
Names from XML namespaces may appear as qualified names, which contain a single colon, separating the name into a namespace prefix and a local part. The prefix, which is mapped to a URI reference, selects a namespace. The combination of the universally managed URI namespace and the namespace of the document produces identifiers that are universally unique. Mechanisms are provided for prefix scoping and defaulting. URI references can contain characters not allowed in names, so cannot be used directly as namespace prefixes.
Therefore, the namespace prefix serves as a proxy for a URI reference. An attribute-based syntax described in the following section is used to declare the association of the namespace prefix with a URI reference; software which supports this namespace proposal must recognize and act on these declarations and prefixes. Many of the nonterminals in the productions in this specification are defined not here but in the W3C XML Recommendation. When nonterminals defined here have the same names as nonterminals defined in the W3C XML Recommendation, the productions here in all cases match a subset of the strings matched by the corresponding ones there.
In productions of this document, the NSC is a Namespace Constraint, one of the rules that documents conforming to this specification must follow. All Internet domain names used in examples, with the exception of w3.
A namespace is declared using a family of reserved attributes. Such an attribute name must either be xmlns or have xmlns: as a prefix. These attributes, like any other XML attributes, can be provided directly or by default. The attribute value, a URI reference, is the namespace name identifying the namespace. The namespace name, to serve its intended purpose, should have the characteristics of uniqueness and persistence.
It is not a goal that it be directly usable for retrieval of a schema if any exists. However, it should be noted that ordinary URLs can be managed in such a way as to achieve these same goals. If the attribute name matches PrefixedAttName , then the NCName gives the namespace prefix, used to associate element and attribute names with the namespace name in the attribute value in the scope of the element to which the declaration is attached.
In such declarations, the namespace name may not be empty. If the attribute name matches DefaultAttName , then the namespace name in the attribute value is that of the default namespace in the scope of the element to which the declaration is attached. In such a default declaration, the attribute value may be empty. Default namespaces and overriding of declarations are discussed in section "Applying Namespaces to Elements and Attributes" of the W3C Namespace Recommendation.
Prefixes beginning with the three-letter sequence x, m, l, in any case combination, are reserved for use by XML and XML-related specifications. In XML documents conforming to the W3C Namespace Recommendation, some names constructs corresponding to the nonterminal Name may be given as qualified names, defined as follows:. The Prefix provides the namespace prefix part of the qualified name, and must be associated with a namespace URI reference in a namespace declaration. The LocalPart provides the local part of the qualified name.
Note that the prefix functions only as a placeholder for a namespace name. Applications should use the namespace name, not the prefix, in constructing names whose scope extends beyond the containing document. The namespace prefix, unless it is xml or xmlns , must have been declared in a namespace declaration attribute in either the start-tag of the element where the prefix is used or in an ancestor element, that is, an element in whose content the prefixed markup occurs:.
The prefix xmlns is used only for namespace bindings and is not itself bound to any namespace name. This constraint may lead to operational difficulties in the case where the namespace declaration attribute is provided, not directly in the XML document entity, but through a default attribute declared in an external entity.
Such declarations may not be read by software which is based on a non-validating XML processor. Many XML applications, presumably including namespace-sensitive ones, fail to require validating processors. For correct operation with such applications, namespace declarations must be provided either directly or through default attributes declared in the internal subset of the DTD. Element names and attribute types are also given as qualified names when they appear in declarations in the DTD:.
The namespace declaration is considered to apply to the element where it is specified and to all elements within the content of that element, unless overridden by another namespace declaration with the same NSAttName part:. Multiple namespace prefixes can be declared as attributes of a single element, as shown in this example:.
A default namespace is considered to apply to the element where it is declared if that element has no namespace prefix , and to all elements with no prefix within the content of that element. If the URI reference in a default namespace declaration is empty, then un-prefixed elements in the scope of the declaration are not considered to be in any namespace. Note that default namespaces do not apply directly to attributes.
The default namespace can be set to the empty string. This has the same effect, within the scope of the declaration, of there being no default namespace. Have qualified names with the same local part and with prefixes which have been bound to namespace names that are identical.
However, each of the following is legal, the second because the default namespace does not apply to attribute names:. However, the declared type of attribute values is only available to processors which read markup declarations, for example validating processors.
Thus, unless the use of a validating processor has been specified, there can be no assurance that the contents of attribute values have been checked for conformance to this specification. It provides a consistent set of definitions for use in other specifications that must refer to the information in a well-formed XML document.
The primary criterion for inclusion of an information item or property has been that of expected usefulness in future specifications. It does not constitute a minimum set of information that must be returned by an XML processor. An XML document has an information set if it is well-formed and satisfies the namespace constraints described in the following section.
Information sets may be created by methods not described in this specification other than parsing an XML document. See "Synthetic Infosets". The information set of an XML document consists of a number of information items; the information set for any well-formed XML document will contain at least a document information item and several others. An information item is an abstract description of some part of an XML document: each information item has a set of associated named properties.
In this specification, the property names are shown in square brackets, [thus]. The types of information item are listed in section 2. This specification presents the information set as a modified tree for the sake of clarity and simplicity, but there is no requirement that the XML Information Set be made available through a tree structure; other types of interfaces, including but not limited to event-based and query-based interfaces, are also capable of providing information conforming to the XML Information Set.
The terms "information set" and "information item" are similar in meaning to the generic terms "tree" and "node", as they are used in computing. However, the former terms are used in this specification to reduce possible confusion with other specific data models.
Information items do not map one-to-one with the nodes of the DOM or the "tree" and "nodes" of the XPath data model. In this specification, the words "must", "should", and "may" assume the meanings specified in [RFC], except that the words do not appear in uppercase. XML 1. That is, this specification does not define an information set for documents that have element or attribute names containing colons that are used in other ways than as prescribed by the W3C Namespace Recommendation.
Also, the XML Infoset specification does not define an information set for documents which use relative URI references in namespace declarations. The value of a namespace name property is the normalized value of the corresponding namespace attribute; no additional URI escaping is applied to it by the processor. Jon, thanks, I used this recently. There's a bug in FindElementIndex when an element has a "nephew" of the same type preceding it.
I'll make a slight revision that addresses this. Thanks so much Jon! This saved my life today! This worked for me. Thx again. Here's a simple method that I've used, worked for me. Empty; return GetXpath node. SelectSingleNode ".. OwnerElement , node. JohnB Robert Rossney Robert Rossney ParentNode , node. Append id ; which you can store in a Dictionary for example.
And you can later identify the node with an xpath query: newOrOldDocument. SelectSingleNode string. Andrei Andrei 6 6 bronze badges. Roemer Roemer 1, 1 1 gold badge 20 20 silver badges 26 26 bronze badges. What's about indexes — Evgeny Gorbovoy. James Randle James Randle 31 1 1 bronze badge. Why do you need this? There may be a better solution. I need to tell the application to hide certain nodes, I do this by calling the ToggleVisibleElement which takes an xpath. I was hoping there would be an easy way to do this.
Jon Skeet: See my answer to a similar question: stackoverflow. Validating the content of an XML document is a good reason when you are reporting semantic errors beyond what can be determined by validating against a schema. The XPath is fairly human readable but can also be fed to an automated system that uses it to highlight the offending node and present it to a person who can correct the document.
Substring 0, XPath. Substring XPath. Length - XPath. Contains ". ChildNodes if n. GetXPath , node. GetXPath ; if node. Name ; else return String. Plasmabubble Plasmabubble 1 1 silver badge 2 2 bronze badges. Where an element has siblings with the same nodeName,it needs to be indexed using [index], e. ChildNodes If chnode. Name, Attribute.
Name, attr. If inode. Sandy Sandy 11 1 1 bronze badge. PreviousSibling 'Perculate up getting the count of all of this node's sibling before it. PreviousSibling End While 'Mark this node's index, if it has one ' Also mark the index to 1 or the default if it does have a sibling just no previous. ToString If node. Corey Fournier Corey Fournier. I had to do this recently. Only elements needed to be considered. Add node. ToArray ; return String. Art Art 99 3 3 silver badges 8 8 bronze badges.
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