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Interlacing frames gives a smoother motion with half the frame rate. NTSC is used with a frame rate of 60i or 30p whereas PAL generally uses 50i or 25p ; both use a high enough frame rate to give the illusion of fluid motion. Film conversions for NTSC instead use pull down to spread the 24 frames of film across 60 interlaced fields. This maintains the runtime of the film and preserves the original audio, but may cause worse interlacing artefacts during fast motion.
NTSC receivers have a tint control to perform colour correction manually. If this is not adjusted correctly, the colours may be faulty. The PAL standard automatically cancels hue errors by phase reversal, so a tint control is unnecessary yet Saturation control can be more useful. Chrominance phase errors in the PAL system are cancelled out using a 1H delay line resulting in lower saturation, which is much less noticeable to the eye than NTSC hue errors.
However, the alternation of colour information— Hanover bars —can lead to picture grain on pictures with extreme phase errors even in PAL systems, if decoder circuits are misaligned or use the simplified decoders of early designs typically to overcome royalty restrictions. In most cases such extreme phase shifts do not occur.
This effect will usually be observed when the transmission path is poor, typically in built up areas or where the terrain is unfavourable. In the early s, some Japanese set manufacturers developed decoding systems to avoid paying royalties to Telefunken. The Telefunken licence covered any decoding method that relied on the alternating subcarrier phase to reduce phase errors. One solution was to use a 1H analogue delay line to allow decoding of only the odd or even lines. For example, the chrominance on odd lines would be switched directly through to the decoder and also be stored in the delay line.
Then, on even lines, the stored odd line would be decoded again. Such systems suffered hue errors and other problems inherent in NTSC and required the addition of a manual hue control. Outside of film and TV broadcasts, the differences between the two formats when displaying video games are quite dramatic. Games ported to PAL have historically been known for having game speed and frame rates inferior to their NTSC counterparts, being typically slowed by approximately In addition to this, PAL's increased resolution was not utilised during conversion, creating a pseudo letterbox effect with borders top and bottom, which looks similar to a letterbox, and leaving the graphics with a slightly squashed look due to an incorrect aspect ratio caused by the borders.
This was especially prevalent during the 8-bit and bit generations when 2D graphics were used almost exclusively. Despite the possibility and popularity of 60 Hz PAL games, many high-profile games, particularly for the PlayStation 2 console, were released in 50 Hz-only versions. Final Fantasy X, for example, runs in 50 Hz mode only, meaning it runs In contrast, the Dreamcast was the first system to feature PAL60, and the overwhelming majority of PAL games offered 50 and 60 Hz modes with no slow speeds.
Its creator, Henri de France, in search of a response to known NTSC hue problems, came up with ideas that were to become fundamental to both European systems, namely:. SECAM applies those principles by transmitting alternately only one of the U and V components on each TV line, and getting the other from the delay line. QAM is not required, and frequency modulation of the subcarrier is used instead for additional robustness sequential transmission of U and V was to be reused much later in Europe's last "analog" video systems: the MAC standards.
SECAM is free of both hue and saturation errors. It is not sensitive to phase shifts between the colour burst and the chrominance signal, and for this reason was sometimes used in early attempts at colour video recording, where tape speed fluctuations could get the other systems into trouble. In the receiver, it did not require a quartz crystal which was an expensive component at the time and generally could do with lower accuracy delay lines and components.
However, owing to their FM nature, the colour signal remains present, although at reduced amplitude, even in monochrome portions of the image, thus being subject to stronger cross colour. One serious drawback for studio work is that the addition of two SECAM signals does not yield valid colour information, due to its use of frequency modulation. It was necessary to demodulate the FM and handle it as AM for proper mixing, before finally remodulating as FM, at the cost of some added complexity and signal degradation.
In its later years, this was no longer a problem, due to the wider use of component and digital equipment. Over the years, this contributed significantly to the estimated million francs gathered by the SECAM patents for an initial million francs invested in research. There were initial specifications to use colour with the French line format system E.
Actual deployment used the line format. Conversion was often not even needed, as more and more receivers and VCRs became compliant with both standards, helped in this by the common decoding steps and components. When it comes to home VCRs, all video standards use what is called "colour under" format. Colour is extracted from the high frequencies of the video spectrum, and moved to the lower part of the spectrum available from tape. Luma then uses what remains of it, above the colour frequency range.
But the FM nature of colour in SECAM allows for a cheaper trick: division by 4 of the subcarrier frequency and multiplication on replay. Another difference in colour management is related to the proximity of successive tracks on the tape, which is a cause for chroma crosstalk in PAL. However, a different optical disc format, the Thomson transmissive optical disc made a brief appearance on the market.
The media's flexible and transmissive material allowed for direct access to both sides without flipping the disc, a concept that reappeared in multi-layered DVDs about fifteen years later. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Colour encoding system for analogue television. For other uses, see PAL disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: PAL-M. Main article: PAL region. Archived from the original on 22 April Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 14 July In s, when Telefunken commissioned Bruch to invent an automated differential phase correction for color television.
That's why he was awarded. Archived from the original PDF on 29 May Archived from the original PDF on 28 April Retrieved 3 September Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 29 June Broadcast video formats. System A line TV. Pre Mechanical television line line. ATSC 3. AC-3 5. Interactive Entertainment E-pal is an important platform to expand your social network with entertainments of E-chat online, watching movie together, and Karaoke to connect with game friends around the world.
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